This scoping study aims to characterize the local landscape and identify plan of action towards the establishment or strengthening of National Committee for Family Farming to spearhead the localization of the UNDFF Global Action Plan and its implementation. It also aims to produce a synthesis document that describes existing and planned initiatives for family farming, land rights and sustainable agriculture, recommended strategic actions or concrete steps to implement the UNDFF in the country and areas of collaboration and coordination mechanisms among the participants to implement the actions of the UNDFF
Indonesia has more than 200 million people. Agriculture contributes 12.84% (Statistical Center Agency) to 14% (FAO-ID) of the GDP which is the 3rd largest contributor to the GDP. There are problems on food Security with 10 of 35 provinces in Indonesia potentially food insecure with malnutrition experienced by 14.47% of the population. The number of peasants (those owning less than 0.5 hectares) has been increasing (10.8 million in 1993 to 12.7 million in 2003). Even there are many farming families do not have their own farmland or are called the tillers, or even just become farm laborers. Furthermore, the 2013 agricultural census showed a significant decrease in the number of agricultural households compared to 2003 from 31,170,000 to 26,126,000 households, or 59 farmer households per hour. On the contrary, there was an increase in the number of agricultural companies as much as 1,475 agricultural companies during the mentioned period. While land conversion is really high at 110,000 has being converted per year away from agriculture.
More data, according to Sajogyo Institute, 2019, the challenges of family farming in Indonesia among others are lying in land tenure. In 2013 there were landless households (2.38%), peasants 54.80% (0 – 0.49 hectares), small farmers 30.77% (0.50 – 1.99 hectares), medium scale 6.06% (2.00 – 2.99 hectares), and largescale farmers 5.98% (3.00 – 10.00 hectares). Another challenge is closely related to poverty. While BPS (Statistical Center Agency, 2018) stated that there are poor households who depend their livelihood on the agricultural sector as much as 49.00% (rural 64.23%, and urban 24.47%).
The Indonesia NCFF was established on 4 July 2014 during the UN International Year of Family Farming. It was declared by 13 organizations after two days workshop. The 13 organizations who took part at the time of the establishment were as follows:
- AOI (Indonesian Organic Alliance) – national NGO, based in Bogor, West Java.
- API (Indonesian Peasant Alliance) – national family farmers’ organization, based in Jakarta.
- APPI (Indonesian Women Peasant Alliance), a wing of API, based in Jakarta.
- Bina Desa (Indhrra) – national NGO, based in Jakarta.
- FIELD – national NGO, based in Jakarta.
- FPPI, national youth organization, based in Jakarta.
- IPPHTI (Indonesian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management), based in West Java.
- Slow Food (Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi), a regional NGO, based in Jakarta.
- SNI (Indonesian Fishers Union), national family fishers’ organization, based in West Java
- SPI (Indonesian Peasant Union), national peasant union, based in Jakarta.
- SPPQT – provincial farmers organization, based in Central Java.
- YLKI – national consumers organization, based in Jakarta.
- WAMTI – national farmers and fishers’ organization, based in Jakarta.
There were changes in membership, some old members were no longer joining the NCFF, while the new members joined. They are as follows:
- SPI (Indonesian Peasant Union) — left the NCFF in 2016.
- YLKI (national consumers organization) — could not join the NCFF due to over the dateline of submitting the approval, in 2015.
- WAMTI (national farmers and fishers’ organization) — left the NCFF in 2016.
- FPSS (Federation of South Sulawesi Farmers) – joined the NCFF in 2016.
- IHCS (Indonesian Human Rights Committee for Social Justice) — joined the NCFF in 2016.
- Sajogyo Institute — joined the NCFF in 2016.
- SPR Indonesia (Indonesia Community Organizers Networking) – joined the NCFF in 2017.
The establishment of the Indonesian NCFF was with its theme: strengthening the NCFF to promote public policy in favor of family farming in order to improve the dignity and welfare of men and women of small farmers and to achieve food sovereignty in Indonesia. While the specific objectives were as follows: (1) increased participation of family farmers’ organizations in government program and public services of pro poor and small scale farmers at multilevel, (2) strengthened capacity/roles of the NCFF in promoting and engaging active policy dialogue/consultation in favor of the sustainable development of agriculture system based on family farming, (3) recognition of the NCFF by the policy making institutions through its regular representation at national policy-making processes.
In the period of 2016-2018, the NCFF has been trusted by the Challenge Funds to conduct its activities based on its themes and objectives. The activities in the period of 2016-2018 included: (1) internal NCFF meetings (regular coordination-consolidation and annual members meetings), (2) study/research on the reality of the family farmers in Indonesia and developed National Guideline for the Agricultural System Based on Family Farming, (3) Development of advocacy instrument and materials, and communication campaign, (4) Policy workshops on Public Policy in favor of Family Farming in 5 provinces, (5) Monitoring and Evaluation, including writing the best practices of family farming practices related to public policy of 4 villages.
Until 2018, when the UNDFF was officially announced at the UN general assembly, and followed by the preparation of National Action Plan (NAP) drawn up by the government, the NCFF was increasingly recognized for its presence and roles by the Food Security Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture, the focal point of UNDFF implementation in Indonesia. Therefore, since the founding of the NCFF in 2014 until now, this platform is increasingly recognized by some circles from the government either at the village level, district level, provincial and national levels, and by other civil organizations in Indonesia as well.
- Initiatives, policies and programs
Since 2016 till now, the NCFF had composition members which are NGOs, family farming organizations (FFO, including fishers union), and researchers, note: some individuals are working with government. The NCFF has initiated various initiatives with the Food Security Agency, the Ministry of Agriculture, civil society organizations (NCFF non-members), the Ministry of Village, and the Ministry of Children Protection and Women Empowerment.
In 2019, it was the first time when the information of the drafting NAP shared by the Foreign Cooperation Bureau of the MoA. The Bureau and the NCFF then had positive discussion and sharing information regarding the drafted NAP. Finally, in mid of 2019 the document of NAP was launched by the Bureau where the NCFF was actively took part in the event.
In late 2019, there was an information coming up that the NAP was transferred to the Food Security Agency of the MoA. Later on, the NCFF was informed that the Food Security Agency is the focal point of the implementation of the UNDFF. Several month later, in November 2019, an official national launch of the new NAP was conducted by the Agency. Up to now, the NAP has been improving since it is a life document, said the Food Security Agency. The NCFF was then engaged in the Agency as member of Special Working Group of the Food Security under the Agency. But the discussion regarding the NAP which engages the NCFF is still limited.
As member of the Special Working Group of the Food Security, the NCFF has delivered the proposal to the improvement of the NAP. This is the concern of the NCFF that many key issues related to family farming, mostly the access to land, farmers’ institutional matters that are not accommodated in the NAP yet. The agrarian reform promised by the government is not yet fulfilled with land still undistributed. While the access to the government program by family farmers’ organizations are still very limited due to the understanding of the terms of famers’ organization stated in the national law of Protection and Empowerment of the Farmers. The law was actually judicially reviewed by CSOs and FFOs in 2012, but some government institutions are still lack of understanding to the articles revised. Not to mention, there is also different understanding of family farming definition and related activities as the implementation of it created by the government.
While the advocacy of the key issues has been going on progress, entering the year of 2020 the NCFF has been facing new challenge, the pandemic of Covid-19. Inevitably, this pandemic influences all including the NCFF’ members and activities a lot. Even the farmers and fishers hit by the pandemic, the crisis generates solidarity between us and it gets stronger. There was active exchange of products between farmers and fishers. Also, the way of marketing the products found its new method, through online marketing. Especially organic rice and honey have been delivered directly to the customers. The government, on the other hand, intensified the program encouraging sustainable crop plant home gardens (they called it as simply family farming activity).
Cooperative and collective marketing have been happening and some are led by FFOs and some are by the government. CSOs and FFOs are also leading natural/organic farming initiatives. The program/activities that relate to the 7 pillars of the global action plan (GAP). Most the program or activities done by multi-stakeholders are related to the 7 pillars of global action plan (GAP).
There are existing multi-stakeholder platforms for advocacy and policy work or for delivering concrete services to family farmers like the NCFFs, CBI-2, and through the Food Security Agency where government, private sector, and CSOs (and the Indonesia NCFF) are in the same platform.
- Lessons Learned and Remaining Challenges
- Engagement with certain stakeholders (sensitive agencies or ministries) which are closely related to crucial issues needs to be improved. Engagement with legislators is another challenge like the engagement with the Omnibus Law and other related laws to the family farmers which will affect farmers and laborers. Lobbying and public advocacy needs to be research-based. Public awareness and campaign should be improved by increasing number of advocacies. All of these activities should be engaging at all levels (village, district, provincial, and national levels).
- There are strategic actions that will be taken to support family farming in the country within the framework of UNDFF like ensuring public policies in favor of family farming, resources mobilization (expertise among CSOs, NCFF and ILC-CBI-2, and supporting funds), and to encourage synergy among multi-stakeholders. But it is important to strengthen the NCFF at the first place in order to be a strong and solid platform in terms of its members, capacity, and support funds, so it will be full set to engage with the government.
- While CSOs are more agile and flexible, it is important to engage the government in the development of the National Action Plan. And consultation must be done at all levels of the government (from the village-level up to the national level). Unfortunately, the understanding of the family farming definition among the government institutions should be improved, therefore it should be more discussions at all levels between the NCFF-CBI2 and the government. Then it is hoped that there will be a common understanding among multi stakeholders in the implementation of the UNDFF, especially the NAP and its implementation in concrete form.
- Ten years (UNDFF) is not long enough to transform the situation of farmers but it is a big opportunity to change the future for better situation for all of us.
- Ways forward and Strategic Actions
At the local and national levels, there is a need to question top-down regulation that does not favor of Family Farmers (specific to peasants, small holder farmers, women, men, young farmers). Therefore, effective engagement is needed with the focal point of the UNDFF implementation in the country (the Food Security Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture) to set realistic, achievable programs under the National Action Plan on family farming. Public policy advocacy will need to be pursued at the national and local level.
It is the fact that we are still dealing with the Covid-19. As mentioned above, it had negative impacts to farmers because of the lack of access to financial support, agrarian resources, farmers’ institutional matters, markets, the lack of transportation etc. The implementation of the UNDFF should include concrete programs to pursue a NAP on Family Farming and push collaborative work together among the NCFF, the government and others to have effective coordination to face the situation during the pandemic of Covid-19, and the future.